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Companion Planting Chart 2


Companion Planting Chart 2
Companion Planting Chart 2
CC
CC
C
OMPOMP
OMPOMP
OMP
ANIONANION
ANIONANION
ANION
P P
P P
P
LL
LL
L
ANTINGANTING
ANTINGANTING
ANTING
: B: B
: B: B
: B
ASICASIC
ASICASIC
ASIC
CC
CC
C
ONCEPTSONCEPTS
ONCEPTSONCEPTS
ONCEPTS
& R & R
& R & R
& R
ESOURESOUR
ESOURESOUR
ESOUR
CESCES
CESCES
CES
ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business--Cooperative Service.
www.attra.ncat.org
Abstract: Companion planting is based on the idea that certain plants can benefit others when planted in near
proximity. The scientific and traditional bases for these plant associations are discussed. A companion planting chart
for common herbs, vegetables, and flowers is provided, as is a listing of literature resources for traditional companion
planting. An appendix provides history, plant varieties, and planting designs for the Three Sisters, a traditional
Native American companion planting practice.
HH
HH
H
OROR
OROR
OR
TICULTICUL
TICULTICUL
TICUL
TURETURE
TURETURE
TURE
T T
T T
T
ECHNICALECHNICAL
ECHNICALECHNICAL
ECHNICAL
N N
N N
N
OO
OO
O
TETE
TETE
TE
By George Kuepper & Mardi Dodson
July 2001
ATTRA is a project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology
Traditional Companion Planting
Companion planting can be described as the
establishment of two or more plant species in
close proximity so that some cultural benefit
(pest control, higher yield, etc.) is derived. The
concept embraces a number of strategies that
increase the biodiversity of agroecosystems.
Generally, companion planting is thought of as
a small-scale gardening practice. However, in
this discussion the term is applied in its broad-
est sense to include applications to commercial
horticultural and agronomic crops. ATTRA
has another publication, Intercropping Principles
and Production
Practices, that provides additional information
on larger-scale applications.
While companion planting has a long history,
the mechanisms of beneficial plant interaction
have not always been well understood.
Traditional recommendations (see summary
chart provided as Table 1) used by gardeners
have evolved from an interesting combination
of historical observation, horticultural science,
and a few unconventional sources. For ex-
ample, some of the recommendations for
companion planting, made around the middle
of this century, were based on the results of
sensitive crystallization tests (1).
Originally developed by Dr. Ehrenfried
Pfeiffer, sensitive crystallization testing entails
the mixing of plant extracts with select salt
reagents like sodium sulfate or copper
chloride. The resulting solution is placed in a
controlled environment chamber and allowed
to evaporate slowly. The process results in a
precipitate that often takes on beautiful
geometric forms and patterns. The
characteristics of the pattern are studied and
interpreted to establish whether the plants are
likely to interact well with each other (1).
Sensitive crystallization appeals to practitio-
ners of Biodynamics
(BD) and others who
take a more metaphysical approach to nature.
Conventional science is much more skeptical of
this process as a means to evaluate plant
associations.
Contents:
Traditional Companion Planting............................................1
Companion Planting Chart ...................................................2
The Scientific Foundations for Companion Planting ...............3
Options For System Design..................................................4
References .........................................................................4
Resources...........................................................................4
Appendix: Ancient Companions ...........................................6
Companion Planting Chart 2
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