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Common Laboratory Values

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Common Laboratory Values
Common Laboratory Values
352 RESOURCE SECTION
REFERENCE MANUAL V 34
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NO 6 12
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13
Common Laboratory Values
CBC
Test Normal value Function Significance
Hemoglobin 12-18 g/100 mL Measures oxygen carrying capacity
of blood
Low: hemorrhage, anemia
High: polycythemia
Hematocrit 35%-50% Measures relative volume of cells
and plasma in blood
Low: hemorrhage, anemia
High: polycythemia, dehydration
Red blood cell 4-6 million/mm
3
Measures oxygen-carrying capacity
of blood
Low: hemorrhage, anemia
High: polycythemia, heart disease, pulmonary disease
White blood cell
Infant
4-7 y
8-18 y
8,000-15,000/mm
3
6,000-15,000/mm
3
4,500-13,500/mm
3
Measures host defense against
inammatory agents
Low: aplastic anemia, drug toxicity, specic infections
High: inammation, trauma, toxicity, leukemia
Diffential Count
Test Normal value Significance
Neutrophils 54%-62% Increase in bacterial infections, hemorrhage, diabetic acidosis
Lymphocytes 25%-30% Viral and bacterial infections, acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, antigen reaction
Eosinophils 1%-3% Increase in parasitic and allergic conditions, blood dyscrasias, pernicious anemia
Basophils 1% Increase in types of blood dyscrasias
Monocytes 0%-9% Hodgkins disease, lipid storage disease, recovery from severe infections, monocytic leukemia
Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC)
Calculation Normal value Significance
(% Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes + % Bands) x Total White Cell Count
100
>1500 <1000 Patient at increased risk for infection;
defer elective dental care
Bleeding Screen
Test Normal value Function Significance
Prothrombin
time
1-18 sec Measures extrinsic Prolonged in liver disease, impaired Vitamin K production,
surgical trauma with blood loss
Partial thrombo-
plastin time
By laboratory control Measures intrinsic clotting of blood,
congenital clotting disorders
Prolonged in hemophilia A, B, and C and Von Willebrand’s
disease
Platelets 140,000-340,000/mL Measures clotting potential Increased in polycythemia, leukemia, severe hemorrhage;
decreased in thrombocytopenia purpura
Bleeding time 1-6 min Measures quality of platelets Prolonged in thrombocytopenia
International
Normalized
Ratio (INR)
Without anticoagulant
therapy: 1; Anticoagulant
therapy target range: 2-3
Measures extrinsic clotting
function
Increased with anticoagulant therapy
Urinalysis
Test Normal value Function Significance
Volume 1,000-2,000 mL/day Increase in diabetes mellitus, chronic nephritis
Specic gravity 1.015-1.025 Measures the degree of tubular
reabsorption and dehydration
Increase in diabetes mellitus; decrease in acute nephritis,
diabetes insipidus, aldosteronism
pH 6-8 Reects acidosis and alkalosis Acidic: diabetes, acidosis, prolonged fever
Alkaline: urinary tract infection, alkalosis
Casts 1-2 per high power eld Renal tubule degeneration occurring in cardiac failure,
pregnancy, and hemogobinuric-nephrosis
Electrolytes
Test Normal value Function Significance
Sodium (Na) 135-147 mEq Increase in Crushings syndrome
Potassium (K) 3.5-5 mEq Increase in tissue breakdown
Bicarbonate (HCO
3
) 24-30 mEq Reects acid-base balance
Chloride (Cl) 100-106 mEq Increase in renal disease and hypertension
Common Laboratory Values